This wiki article has all the details about Bruce Wayne from the Nolanverse movies.
The Bat had an emergency escape pod that became another vehicle, like the Tumbler became the Batpod in the Dark Knight. This allowed Batman to escape the nuclear blast after turning on the fixed autopilot.
Bruce didn't need to use the CleanSlate program since he was declared dead by Lucius Fox and Jim Gordon. He created a new identity "Bruce Carton" to live under. The name is a call back to the character Sydney Carton from A Tale of Two Cities, which was an influence on the Dark Knight Rises.
Bruce's anger management issues plagued him for years. There was an incident around age twelve when he broke the nose of Richard Daniel after that boy sneered at Rachel Dawes. His acting out also got him kicked out of Princeton University.